UPUNGUFU WA DAMU MWILINI:Sababu,dalili,matibabu

Maelezo ya jumla

Upungufu wa damu (anemia) ni hali ambayo humpata mtu,akiwa na upungufu wa seli nyekundu za damu. Seli nyekundu za damu hubeba oksijeni ambayo hutumiwa na tishu zote mwilini.

Dalili za upungufu wa damu ni zipi?   

  • Dalili ni pamoja na:  
  • Aina fulani za anemia zinaweza kuwa na dalili nyingine, kama vile:        

anemiaUpungufu wa damu husababishwa na nini?    

  • Japokuwa kuna sehemu nyingi zinazotengeza seli nyekundu za damu mwilini, kazi kubwa ya kutengeneza seli nyekundu za damu hufanyika kwenye uboho wa mifupa. Uboho wa mifupa ni tishu laini inayopatikana katikati ya mfupa inayosaidia kuunda seli za damu.
  • Seli nyekundu za damu zinaweza kuishi kwa muda wa siku 90 mpaka 120. Sehemu kadhaa za mwili wako husaidia kuziondoa seli nyekundu za damu zilizozeeka. Homoni inayoitwa erythropoietin inayotengenezwa kwenye figo huuashiria uboho wa mifupa kutengeneza seli nyekundu za damu.
  • Hemoglobini ni protini yenye kubeba oksijeni iliyo ndani ya seli nyekundu za damu. Inazipatia seli nyekundu za damu rangi yao nyekundu. Watu wenye anemia hawana hemogloboni ya kutosha.
  • Sababu zinazoweza kusababisha anemia ni pamoja na:       
    • Madawa fulani fulani      
    • Magonjwa sugu/ ya muda mrefu kama vile kansa au yabisi-baridi.
    • Jenetiki: Aina fulani za upungufu wa damu , kama vile thalassemia, zinaweza kurithiwa        
    • Figo kushindwa kufanya kazi
    • Kupoteza damu (kwa mfano, kutokwa damu ya hedhi kwa muda mrefu au vidonda vya tumbo)        
    • Mlo mbaya        
    • Mimba/ujauzito       
    • Matatizo ya uboho wa mifupa kama vile saratani, mfano: ”lymphoma”, kansa ya damu, au ”multiple myeloma”
    • Matatizo ya mfumo wa kinga ambayo husababisha uharibifu wa seli za damu,matatizo haya husababisha mwili kuharibu seli za damu kabla hazijazeeka.
    • Upasuaji wa tumbo au matumbo unaweza kusababisha kupunguza kunyonywa kwa madini ya chuma, vitamini B12, au asidi ya folic ambazo zinahitajika kwa ajili ya utengenezaji wa seli nyekundu za damu.
    • Upungufu wa homoni ya thyroid inayotengenezwa na tezi dundumio ”thyroid gland”      
    • Upungufu wa ‘Testosterone”

Ukiwa na upungufu wa damu ni wakati gani utafute matibabu ya haraka?

Mwone mtoa huduma ya afya ikiwa una dalili yoyote ya upungufu wa damu, au kutokwa damu isivyo kawaida.

Utambuzi kuwa una upungufu wa damu   

  • Daktari atafanya uchunguzi wa kimwili, na anaweza kupata:        
    • Ngozi yenye rangi iliyofifia.      
    • Mapigo ya moyo yanayoenda mbio
    • Moyo unaonung’unika (aina fulani za sauti kwenye moyo anazosikia daktari, moyo ukiwa na shida/taabu/tatizo)   
  • Vipimo vya damu vinavyofanyika ili kutambua aina na chanzo cha upungufu wa damu ni pamoja na:
    • Kupima viwango vya  vitamini B12, folic asidi, na vitamini na madini mengine  kwenye damu.      
    • Kupima kiwango cha seli nyekundu za damu na kiwango cha hemoglobini.        
    • Kupima kiwango cha Reticulocyte (ni seli nyekundu za damu ambazo ni changa,bado hazijakomaa ,hizi huongezeka kwenye damu kama uboho unatengeneza seli kwa haraka kupita kiasi ili kufidia upungufu uliopo )       
    • Kupima kiwango cha ferritin        
    • Kupima kiwango cha chuma    
  • Vipimo vingine vinaweza kufanywa kutambua matatizo mengine ambayo yanaweza kusababisha upungufu wa damu.

upungufu wa damuUchaguzi wa matibabu ya upungufu wa damu

Matibabu yanapaswa kuelekezwa kutibu sababu iliyosababisha anemia, na yanaweza kujumuisha:    

  • Kuongezewa damu    
  • Kupewa dawa kama Corticosteroids au dawa nyingine zinazozuia mfumo wa kinga mwili kufanya kazi,ili kuunguza uharibifu wa seli nyekundu.    
  • Kupewa Erythropoietin, dawa ambayo husaidia uboho wa mifupa yako kutengeneza seli zaidi za damu,kama kuna upungufu wa homoni hiyo.    
  • Kutumia vidonge vya chuma, vitamini B12, asidi ya folic, au vitamini na madini mengine,kama imegundulika kuwa yamepungua.

Ili kupata matibabu yaliyo sahihi ya upungufu, daktari kwanza atafanya vipimo vyote anavyoona vinafaa ili kugundua chanzo cha anemia ,na kisha matibabu yatafanyika ili kutibu au kurekebisha chanzo cha tatizo.

Nini cha kutarajia kama una upungufu wa damu ?

Matokeo na matarajio hutegemea sababu/chanzo cha upungufu wa damu.

Matatizo yanayoweza kutokana na anemia

Upungufu mkali wa damu unaweza kusababisha upungufu wa oksijeni mwilini ,kwa sababu moyo unahitaji okisijeni kufanya kazi ,upungufu huo utasababisha mshtuko wa moyo na inaweza kusababisha kifo.

Vyanzo

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000560.htm

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